NVIDIA Optimus

NVIDIA Optimus refers to a dual graphics configuration found on laptops consisting of an Intel integrated GPU and a discrete NVIDIA GPU.

There are different methods to take advantage of the NVIDIA GPU, which depend on the driver version supported by your hardware.

In order to determine the correct driver to install, it is not enough to look at the "Supported Products" list on NVIDIA's website, because they are not guaranteed to work in an Optimus configuration. So the only way is to try installing the latest nvidia, rebooting, and looking at the kernel log. If your device is not supported, you will see a message like this:

NVRM: The NVIDIA GPU xxxx:xx:xx.x (PCI ID: xxxx:xxxx)
NVRM: installed in this system is not supported by the xxx.xx
NVRM: NVIDIA Linux driver release.  Please see 'Appendix
NVRM: A - Supported NVIDIA GPU Products' in this release's
NVRM: README, available on the Linux driver download page
NVRM: at www.nvidia.com.

which means you have to uninstall nvidia and install the legacy nvidia390.

A summary of the methods supported by Void:

PRIME Render Offload

  • only available on nvidia
  • allows to switch to the NVIDIA GPU on a per-application basis
  • more flexible but power saving capabilities depend on the hardware (pre-Turing devices are not shut down completely)

Offloading Graphics Display with RandR 1.4

  • available on nvidia and nvidia390
  • allows to choose which GPU to use at the start of the X session
  • less flexible but allows to shut down completely the NVIDIA GPU when not in use, thus saving power


  • available on nvidia and nvidia390
  • allows to switch to the NVIDIA GPU on a per-application basis
  • unofficial method, offers poor performance

Nouveau PRIME

  • uses the open source driver nouveau
  • allows to switch to the NVIDIA GPU on a per-application basis
  • nouveau is a reverse-engineered driver and offers poor performance

Note: different methods are mutually exclusive.

PRIME Render Offload

In this method, GPU switching is done via setting environment variables when executing the application to be rendered on the NVIDIA GPU. Thus one can easily write a small wrapper script prime-run with the following contents:


To verify that the variables are honored, check for the vendor returned by the following command (install the package glxinfo):

$ prime-run glxinfo | grep "renderer string"

and compare it with:

$ glxinfo | grep "renderer string"

For more information, see NVIDIA's README


Enable the bumblebeed service and add the user to the bumblebee group.

Note: This requires a re-login to be effective.

Run the application to be rendered on the NVIDIA GPU with optirun:

$ optirun <application>

For example (install the package glxinfo):

$ optirun glxinfo | grep "renderer string"

Nouveau PRIME

Note: This method uses the open source nouveau driver, which is blacklisted by NVIDIA drivers. Uninstall any NVIDIA driver present on your system and reboot.

Set DRI_PRIME=1 to run an application on the NVIDIA GPU:

$ DRI_PRIME=1 <application>

For example (install the package glxinfo):

$ DRI_PRIME=1 glxinfo | grep "renderer string"